Saturday, 26 September 2015

Holy Communion for the divorced and remarried but not for those who refuse the Church tax?

Edward Pentin's "The Rigging of a Vatican Synod" (links below) is well worth reading. It is subtitled "An Investigation into Alleged Manipulation at the Extraordinary Synod on the Family." One commentator suggested that Ignatius Press must have insisted on the question mark in the main title and the "alleged" in the subtitle. I'm not sure this is fair. Edward Pentin does present a studiously balanced account, giving quotations and arguments from both sides. The evidence that is presented is clear enough, but it is not forced on the reader.

We English are noted for understatement and it can be a powerful debating tool. Pentin genuinely leaves the reader free to make up his own mind, having taken the trouble to obtain replies from those who would take issue with the idea that the Synod was rigged. This results in the case being made more clearly and convincingly than it would be in a tendentious and one-sided account.

For anyone interested in the Synod, Edward Pentin's book is an essential contribution to the growing corpus of meta-studies on the proceedings. There are many nuggets of interest. One which jumped out of the (virtual) page was the comment of Professor Stephan Kampowski in relation to the Kirchensteuer, the German Church Tax. The Catholic Church in Germany receives about £5 billion each year give or take a few million. To stop paying the tax, you have to make an official declaration that you are leaving the Church.

I am not a moral theologian, but I guess that my colleagues in that discipline might be able to argue that there are grounds for making some sort of mental reservation on the grounds that you do not wish to actually renounce the faith, but wish to pay a little less in support of the Church according to your means. This would be difficult to justify, but plausible - as plausible, say, as arguing that your marriage is dead because you were both a bit young, or felt that you didn't take it all seriously and have now grown apart. However there are different approaches to the two cases.

Whereas many of the German bishops are in the vanguard of the campaign to admit the divorced and remarried to Holy Communion, no such mercy is shown to those who refuse the Kirchensteuer.

In September 2012, the German Bishops issued a decree ruling that those who choose not to pay the Kirchensteuer. (Allgemeines Dekret der Deutschen Bischofskonferenz zum Kirchenaustritt) Section II.1 of the decree states that a person who has made the declaration of withdrawal from the Church,
  • May not receive the sacraments of penance, Eucharist, confirmation or Anointing of the Sick - (except in danger of death)
  • May not hold any ecclesiastical offices or functions in the church
  • May not be godfather or godmotther
  • May not be a member of a parochial or diocesan councils
  • Loses active and passive voting rights in the Church
  • May not be a member of the public ecclesiastical associations
This inconsistency is not an original discovery. Sandro Magister and many others have drawn attention to it before, but it is the first time that it has really struck me and I thought it would be of interest to others. Some of those pushing hardest for the admission of the divorced and remarried to Holy Communion are apparently content to deny Holy Communion and other aspects of participation in the life of the Church to those who do not pay a tax that has made the German Church extraordinarily wealthy.

"The Rigging of a Vatican Synod" is available only as an electronic book download. Here are the links:
Ignatius Press

Tuesday, 15 September 2015

St John Paul's invitation to women who have had an abortion

pope-john-paul II and the Divine MercyOne of the key differences between the 1917 Code of Canon Law and the 1983 Code is that in the 1983 Code, there are no longer any reserved sins, only reserved censures - and there are not many of those.

Nevertheless, both Misericodiae Vultus, the Bull of Indiction of the Extraordinary Jubilee of Mercy and the recent letter to Archbishop Fisichella, speak of permission being given to priests to absolve reserved sins. The letter to Archbishop Fisichella was widely misinterpreted in the press, but that is no surprise, since we have now had two massively important documents that themselves confuse the forgiveness of sins with the remission of canonical censures. Perhaps there might be someone in Rome much more learned than I am in the byways of canon law who could proof-read these things before they are published to the world.

As at least some people know, now that the dust has settled, many Conferences of Bishops have, for many decades, agreed that they will all give all their priests faculties to absolve from the censure attached to procured abortion. In fact, it is likely that many women who have had an abortion will not have incurred the censure because of fear, psychological coercion or ignorance of the gravity of the sin, but it is helpful for the priest to be able to take any doubt away by formally absolving from the censure.

(What is often forgotten is that the censure does not only apply to the mother, but also to the doctor and, in many cases the person(s) who organised or paid for the abortion - they have "procured" abortion, and usually they would not have the same excusing circumstances as the poor mother.)*

Generally, priests will have heard many confessions of abortion over the past decades, dealing compassionately with mothers who have bitterly repented this bad decision, developing pastoral praxis in the confessional - or to put it more simply, learning what are the most helpful considerations to put before their penitents to help in the process of healing and confidence in God's loving mercy. It is galling to have the chattering classes now publishing articles that assume that mercy towards women who have had abortions is a stunning new idea that has just been thought up to shake the nasty priests out of their misogynism.

The words of Pope Francis to women who have had an abortion are much to be commended and I pray that they bring hope and solace:
I think in particular of all the women who have resorted to abortion. I am well aware of the pressure that has led them to this decision. I know that it is an existential and moral ordeal. I have met so many women who bear in their heart the scar of this agonizing and painful decision. What has happened is profoundly unjust; yet only understanding the truth of it can enable one not to lose hope. The forgiveness of God cannot be denied to one who has repented, especially when that person approaches the Sacrament of Confession with a sincere heart in order to obtain reconciliation with the Father.
These words of Pope Francis reminded me of a passage that I have often quoted when speaking on pro-life topics. St John Paul, in his magnificent encyclical letter Evangelium Vitae, also spoke in a personal and compassionate way to women who have had an abortion, emphasising the mercy of God. This was a theme dear to his heart as shown by his encyclical letter Dives in Misericordia, his devotion to St Faustina, and his promulgation of the feast of Divine Mercy. Here are his words on forgiveness, mercy and reconciliation for abortion:
I would now like to say a special word to women who have had an abortion. The Church is aware of the many factors which may have influenced your decision, and she does not doubt that in many cases it was a painful and even shattering decision. The wound in your heart may not yet have healed. Certainly what happened was and remains terribly wrong. But do not give in to discouragement and do not lose hope. Try rather to understand what happened and face it honestly. If you have not already done so, give yourselves over with humility and trust to repentance. The Father of mercies is ready to give you his forgiveness and his peace in the Sacrament of Reconciliation. To the same Father and his mercy you can with sure hope entrust your child.
St John Paul, however goes further than this in a striking, one might say daring way:
With the friendly and expert help and advice of other people, and as a result of your own painful experience, you can be among the most eloquent defenders of everyone's right to life. Through your commitment to life, whether by accepting the birth of other children or by welcoming and caring for those most in need of someone to be close to them, you will become promoters of a new way of looking at human life.
St John Paul does not leave women in the position of being forgiven, of passively receiving mercy. He brings a note of positive confidence and encouragement to action and leadership.

Pro-life groups will affirm that some of their most generous supporters, and indeed sometimes some of their most powerful speakers, are women who have themselves had an abortion and have later experienced a conversion to the pro-life cause.

* In my canonico-legal naivety, I did not know that Ed Peters has made a canonical case arguing that no women have incurred the censure since the promulgation of the 1983 code because of the omission of the words matre non excepta. See this article which has a footnote referring to further articles.)

Thursday, 10 September 2015

Some meek thoughts on Mitis Iudex


Frequently during my priestly life, I have given heartfelt thanks to God that I am not a canon lawyer. Most of my canonist priest friends spend a great deal of their time on cases alleging nullity of marriage and I am glad not to be involved too much in that. As a parish priest I do necessarily become part of the process from time to time. This usually begins at the baptism of a child, when it turns out that the parents are not married, or are married outside the Church. If, after gently enquiring about the circumstances, it turns out that things could be put right by a declaration of nullity of a previous marriage, and a person wants to go ahead with petitioning for nullity, I do everything I can to help them.

This involves some careful explanation of the process, helping them to fill in the forms, and assisting them with writing the initial statement. My personal view of the nullity process does not come into it - I am bound to offer the best help that I can for the person to benefit from the Church's law as it stands.

I will continue to do my best to help people who come to me, now that a change in the law has been decreed by the Holy Father. My view of the law is of no account. I thank God even more heartily for the protest that I can make when people think I am a canon lawyer: "No! I am not a canonist, I am a dogmatist."

Along with everyone else, I went to the ever excellent Ed Peters for an initial summary of Mitis Iudex Dominus Iesus. If you are interested, there are two articles to date: A first look at Mitis Iudex and A second look at Mitis, especially at the new fast-track annulment process. Notoriously in both civil and canon law, a small change can have wide and unexpected ramifications. From my non-lawyer perspective, this seems to be especially true of tax law and marriage law. The reforms which have just been introduced do seem to be major and I fear for the consequences.

There is no such thing as free beer. Nor in fact is there any such thing as a free nullity process. In the paragraph asking Bishops to make the process free, the caution is issued "salva iusta et honesta tribunalium operatorum mercede" (always providing for the just and honest wage of the workers of the tribunal.) People who work on a tribunal cannot go into the supermarket, take things off the shelves, walk out of the shop without paying for them, and say to the security guard "It's OK, I work for a marriage tribunal." So perhaps the idea is that all the faithful pay for the nullity processes by having yet another second collection - there might be envelopes, leaflets, posters and some special activities for the Children's Liturgy group for Nullity Sunday. At the rate we are going, we will have to introduce third collections, perhaps during the Responsorial Psalm or something, since we will soon run out of Sundays.

The question of where the money comes from is something we can joke about. But there is also no such thing as a consequence-free marriage breakdown and this is where it gets more serious. It might happen - I don't say that it will necessarily, but I think we have to admit the possibility - it might happen that the new process means that there are more declarations of nullity. That could simply be down to the number of genuinely invalid marriages that can now be declared null because of a shorter and simpler process. That might be the case.

What worries me is that it might happen that the indissolubility of marriage could be compromised by making it simply too easy to obtain a declaration of nullity. We should be crystal clear about the fact that this would not be merciful. It might seem lovely to just bend the law a bit and make nullity a rubber stamp process, but it would not be kind or loving, and it would definitely not be what Jesus would do.

Church tribunals are not adversarial in the way that English courts are. They are of the nature of an inquisition, though nobody calls them that any more. As such, they seek to establish the truth and to make a judgement based on the truth. That is also the case with the final judgement before Christ, except that He will not need to establish the truth because He will know it already. We all do well to keep this in mind every day.

Thursday, 3 September 2015

Lego Mass sets

Father Z today has an article about Lego Mass set bricks from Domestic Church Supply. Here is the picture of the Church with the priest celebrating Mass:

I could not help thinking back to A lego Church that is better than quite a lot of real ones about which I posted last year. As you can see, it has some more traditional elements (see the post for other photos):


There is a transatlantic difference here as well - in England we play with Lego, not Legos. Can you really have lots of Legos? Or a single Lego? Discuss venomously on Twitter, imputing nefarious motives to either myself or Fr Z, and dragging in various tangentially related issues.

Top marks to Thuan, who features at the end of Fr Z's post. At the age of 4 has mastered the concept of "Say the Black, Do the Red." after watching daily Mass on EWTN.

Wednesday, 2 September 2015

A Year in Margate


On Tuesday the second of September last year, I trundled down to Margate followed by a van full of boxes, most of which were filled with books, most of which have now been put onto shelves. I loved Margate from the day I moved in, and still love it. At lunchtime today I wandered down to the harbour, had a sandwich in Cafe G, a hot chocolate in Bernie's Chocolate bar, and checked out the superb Pararphernalia antique shop, noting a couple of things that might be useful for the sacristy and making a mental note to bring a tape-measure next time.

In the parish, we are planning for the autumn Quiz Night, pre-Christmas fair, and yes, the Christmas schedule, at least in terms of dates. We have a new organist for the 9.30am sung English Mass on Sunday, and the beginnings of a new choir. The 11.30am traditional Latin Mass is going well, with good numbers and again a few more volunteers for the schola. There is a healthy attendance at weekday Mass and it is great to have extras like the Rosary on Wednesdays and Benediction after Mass on Friday evening.

Getting to grips with administering a new parish takes time, even when it has been left in excellent shape as was the case when I came to Margate. I sometimes think that one measure of good pastoral balance is not to spend too much time in front of a computer. In fact some of the time can be well-spent if it means setting things up so that the computer does some of the work in the future. So I have devised databases that I always meant to set up and never got round to and they are beginning to pay off.

Unfortunately, the blog has suffered from the busyness of the first year in a new parish, but I hope that I can get going with it a bit more now - a friend commented the other day that it seemed to be creaking, puffing and emitting odd bursts of steam over the past few weeks.

A bonus of living in the original seaside town is that people do come down to visit. It reminds me a bit of my time in Rome when we often heard more about events all over England than did the people living there. I have had the pleasure of catching up with many people over the summer and, thank God, most of them have experienced Margate at its most attractive, with glorious sunshine, as well as getting to see our lovely Church of St Austin and St Gregory.

Tomorrow in the modern calendar it is the feast of St Gregory, and so our weekday Mass will be a sung Mass with sermon. We will also celebrate it as an external solemnity on Sunday in both forms. Please remember the parish and myself in your prayers.

Saturday, 22 August 2015

Devotional highlights film of A Day With Mary at Margate

DWM 150718

The Day with Mary team has sent me a ten minute film with highlights of the Day With Mary that was held at St Austin and St Gregory, Margate on 18 July this year. Principal highlights are the crowning of the statue, the Marian and Blessed Sacrament processions, Benediction and the farewell procession. It was a glorious day. Above is a cropped still capture which I rather liked and below you view the video.

Thursday, 20 August 2015

Catholic Dilemma 288: Cremation, Catholics and the Resurrection

I am now well into my nineties and have been considering my death for some years. I see that the Church now allows cremation, but since we believe in the resurrection of the body, what worries me is that afterwards, there is no body, only ashes.

The 19th century cremation movement, promoted initially by Italian freemasons involved an explicit denial of the resurrection of the body as well as (largely spurious) hygienic and public health concerns. In response, the Church insisted on the ancient custom of burial until 1966, by which time cremation had become more common and was less likely to be promoted for reasons contrary to the faith. The Code of Canon Law puts the present law simply: “The Church earnestly recommends that the pious custom of burying the bodies of the deceased be observed; nevertheless, the Church does not prohibit cremation unless it was chosen for reasons contrary to Christian doctrine.” (Canon 1176.3)

In ancient Rome, the bodies of Christians were often recovered at great risk for a dignified burial. Some pagans thought that by burning the bodies, they would make their resurrection impossible. The early Christian writer Minucius Felix replied that Christians did not fear loss or harm from cremation “even though we adopt the ancient and better custom of burial.”

In encouraging Christian burial, the Church draws attention to the body which is washed in baptism, anointed at confirmation, and fed with the Holy Eucharist. The body is the temple of the Holy Spirit and is treated with respect after death. The traditional custom of burial also acts as a symbol of the person sleeping in Christ until the resurrection. Likewise the ashes should be treated with respect after cremation at all times, and reverently buried, not scattered.

May I gently urge you to make a Will which includes your desire for a Requiem Mass (as well as the disposal of your mortal remains and any material assets.) This will be an act of kindness and will greatly help your surviving relatives when God calls you to Himself. And God bless you for giving us an example of lifelong active and enquiring faith.

Catholic Dilemmas column published in the Catholic Herald
Suggestions for Catholic Dilemmas are always welcome by email or via Twitter @FatherTF

Tuesday, 18 August 2015

Why are the readings not chanted?

Singing the epistle at Pontifical High Mass in the Lateran Basilica, 
celebrated by the Prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship

Recently there has been an interesting exchange on the question of who should do the readings at at Mass in the modern rite. (Cf. Benedict Constable and Joseph Shaw.) Reference has been made to the question of instituted Lectors. Lector was one of the minor orders since at least the time of Tertullian, but in 1972, Pope Paul VI made Lector a lay ministry by the Apostolic Letter Ministeria Quaedam. (Latin original - English translation.) In the traditional orders, however, seminarians are still ordained to the Lectorate as a minor order.

A traditional seminarian who has been ordained Lector recently reminded me that Lectors in such seminaries do not read or chant the epistle at Mass. Their "ministry of reading" is limited to occasionally chanting one of the lessons when there are several before the epistle (on ember days, for example.) The epistle itself is always chanted by the subdeacon at High Mass, chanted by the celebrant at Missa Cantata (solemn Mass without a deacon and subdeacon) and read by the celebrant at Low Mass.

So if we are to base the question of who should read the epistle in the modern rite on the ancient practice, Lectors have nothing much to do with it. If the modern rite is to follow tradition in the matter of who does the first reading, it has to be the celebrant or a deacon, not an ordained Lector, an instituted Lector, or a layperson stepping into this role. Modern liturgists will probably want to argue that in the modern rite, lay people have a liturgical role and various ministries, and that doing the reading is one of them. This question is one of those left essentially unresolved by almost universally tolerated practice.

What I would like to raise is the question of why the readings are almost never chanted. It is true that the directives on music since the Council give quite a bit of flexibility over what may be sung at Mass. In the traditional form of Mass, you essentially either have sung Mass or a said "Low" Mass. At sung Mass, all of the sung parts must be sung, period. In the modern rite, there is a hierarchy of what is more important to sing. It is some time since I mastered the labyrinthine rules of this: they seem to change from time to time, and they are largely ignored in any case. Whatever the rules say, grand "set-piece" liturgies in the modern rite in Cathedrals and Seminaries round the world are praised to the skies for their wonderful music when neither the Introit nor the Communion is sung, let alone the Offertorium. (Many experienced musicians have never heard that there is such a thing as an Offertory chant in the modern rite.)

What you will very rarely come across is a chanted first reading or second reading in the vernacular. Occasionally in seminaries and the like, the Gospel is chanted, but that is still rare; most people will only have heard such a thing when watching papal liturgies on television. Yet surely the second Vatican Council emphasised the importance of the word? If the Preface at Mass or the Sanctus is chanted, why is St Paul so neglected? Are the very words of Christ Himself in the Gospel to be left spoken as though they are part of the private prayers of the priest?

Two developments have contributed to this effective downgrading of the word of the Lord. The first and less interesting to my mind, is the invention of the microphone. Nowadays the words can be heard even if they are just spoken, whereas the chant made the voice carry more effectively in a large building. The general rule at the traditional Solemn Mass is that the public prayers are sung while the private prayers are said in a low voice (secreto). Conversely at Low Mass, the texts that would be sung at Solemn Mass are said audibly, whereas the private prayers are again spoken secreto. The anomalies (particularly the prayers at the foot of the altar and the Last Gospel) are generally associated with elements considered extraneous to the core of the rite of Mass. The microphone makes it possible in practice to ignore the distinction between public and private prayers, and so it is in fact ignored, thus damaging the balance of elements in the Roman Rite. It is one of those unforeseen consequences of the hasty reform of the rite.

More interesting, I think, is the question of what exactly we are doing when we proclaim the word of God. It is almost universally accepted that at the Mass, the word of God is proclaimed solely for the instruction of the people. Obviously it would be foolish to consider this as irrelevant; there are plenty of patristic homilies commenting on the Gospel of the day, and clearly the instructional or catechetical element has a long and noble history.

However this does not rule out the possibility which is rarely mentioned, that the chanting of the scriptures at Mass has a doxological and sacramental dimension. The division between the Liturgy of the Word and the Liturgy of the Eucharist in the modern form, or between the Mass of the Catechumens and the Mass of the Faithful in the traditional form, cannot be taken to mean a division between worship and non-worship, or between classroom and prayer. The whole rite is an act of worship, including the proclamation of the scriptures. The one who reads is enunciating words inspired by the Holy Ghost. They are meant to be set forth with reverence and solemnity. Even liturgical abuses such as the deacon dancing around in a meaningful pattern, accompanied by voile-swirling ladies, while waving the Gospel book above his head, are witness to the fundamental meaning of the reading of the Word as an act which is in itself the worship of the Father and not just a didactic exercise.

The acclamation in response to the proclamation of scripture is Deo gratias or Laus tibi Christe, not pursed lips and a nod of understanding. We do not affirm that we have heard and digested, we give thanks and praise, two fundamental actions of participation in the action of Christ in the divine Liturgy.

So why are the readings always spoken and never chanted at sung Masses in the modern form?

It occurred to me that if this thesis spreads like a forest fire and inspires liturgists around the world to re-introduce the chanting of the readings, there is a strong possibility that some liturgists will assume the freedom to go beyond the traditional sober chants in their noble simplicity so commended by the second Vatican Council. As with the Responsorial Psalm, there could be new chants composed, especially for the bits with lots of compassion and "mothering" images, that might make the prophet Hosea sound like a cross between the Carpenters and Dolly Parton. I disclaim all responsibility for any such consequences now or in the future, anything to the contrary notwithstanding.

Monday, 17 August 2015

The blessing of a chariot

When I studied Latin in Rome with Fr Reginald Foster, he used to suggest that a good word for a car was autorhaeda, a word in fact used in the Acta Apostolicae Sedis of 1965 when speaking of a visit made by Pope Paul VI to the Basilica of St Chrysogonus in Trastevere. The word raeda (without the "h") was used by Caesar, Cicero and Horace for a travelling wagon with four wheels and the addition of "auto" does not make for too awful a neologism.

In the Rituale Romanum, the blessing for a motor vehicle is the Benedictio vehiculi seu currus. The word currus is normally translated as chariot and reflects the way that people often view their car.

Since one's motor vehicle is more likely to be the locus of one's death or injury than many other artefacts, it does make sense to have it blessed. Above you can see us striding purposefully past the Georgian houses of Victoria Road and here is the blessing of the classic mini:

The blessing given in the Rituale has a typical scriptural reference and calls to mind our journey to eternal life:
Benedictio vehiculi seu currus

V. Adjutórium nostrum in nómine Dómini.
R. Qui fecit cælum et terram.
V. Dóminus vobíscum.
R. Et cum spíritu tuo.

Propitiare, Dómine Deus,supplicatiónibus nostris, et béne + dic currum istum déxtera tua sancta: adjúnge ad ipsum sanctos Angelos tuos, ut omnes, qui in eo vehéntur, líberent et custódiant semper a perículis univérsis: et quemádmodum viro Æthíopi super currum suum sedénti et sacra elóquia legénti, per Levítam tuum Philíppum fidem et grátiam contulísti; ita fámulis tuis viam salútis osténde, qui tua grátia adjúti bonísque opéribus júgiter inténti, post omnes viæ et vitæ hujus varietátes,ætérna gáudia cónsequi mereántur.Per Christum Dóminum nostrum.
R. Amen.
Et aspergatur aqua benedicta.
Here is an English version from the Small Ritual of 1964 which is in parts more of a pious reflection on the text than an accurate translation:
V. Our help is in the name of the Lord
R. Who made heaven and earth
V. The Lord be with you
R. And with your spirit

Let us pray
Hear our prayer, Lord God, and raise thy hand in blessing over this carriage. Command they holy Angels to be near it, keeping danger far away from all who travel by its means. As thou gavest faith and grace, through thy Levite Philip, to the Ethiopian who sat in his chariot reading thy holy word; so now point out to those who are carried by this vehicle the way that leads to salvation. May thy grace enable them ever to travel to good purpose: and when at last life's journey is over and adventuring is done, may everlasting happiness be theirs. Through Christ our Lord.
R. Amen.
The vehicle is sprinkled with holy water.

Sunday, 16 August 2015

Gothic vestments: the real thing


The Gothic versus Roman debate on vestments can lead to disproportionately strong feeling. The English College at Rome has a very fine High Mass set made by Pugin. At least it was very fine until the one-time Rector, Arthur Hinsley, cut the chasuble into a Roman shape. Poor Pugin, who was known to have dramatic emotional outbursts, would have had the mother of all tantrums.

Yesterday I had the pleasure of celebrating Missa Cantata for the feast of the Assumption at the shrine of St Augustine in Ramsgate with chant provided by the Schola Sancti Augustini under the leadership of Tom Neal. The shrine has recently received a massive grant from the Heritage Lottery Fund which is great news, since the plan is to restore Pugin's own Church to its former glory as well as providing a visitor and education centre.

In the fading light of a gloomy Thanet afternoon I found the above set of vestments designed by AW Pugin himself, waiting for me on the vestment press as if, you know, "we have plenty of them down here." Most modern vestments, even in traditional style, have damask made of synthetic fabric. It is quite a contrast to put on a chasuble made with heavy cotton damask. Here is a close-up of the orphrey and medallion.


There is an interesting detail on the front. The collar just about fitted round my medium-sized head but the cranially larger priest would have difficulty. To avoid an embarrassing struggle, the collar has a small hook-and-eye clasp that is still in perfectly good functioning condition.


After Mass I met yet another seamstress - there are at least three in my parish in Margate. We will be looking to form a local branch of the Guild of St Clare, I think. There are some fine patterns to work from in the area, and if gothic vestments can be made as splendid as the one I wore today in honour of the Assumption of Our Lady, I could be persuaded out of my predilection for baroque. - at least for some occasions anyway.

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